We know you love a challenge. So here it goes:
1 – [LINGUISTICS]:_______ is what we intuitively know about a language in order to be able to use it. It is the kind of internalized knowledge that allows us to distinguish well-formed from ill-formed sentences, such as This is the book I lost it and This is the book that I lost, even if we can’t say what rule is. (7 letters)
2 – [METHODOLOGY]: ________ questions are questions asked by teachers in order that learners can show their knowledge, such as What’s the capital of France? They typically initiate a three-part exchange that is characteristic of classroom interaction, and is called an IRF (interaction-response-follow-up) sequence. In language classrooms, ______ questions are usually aimed at finding out what learners can say in the target language. Asking a series of _____ questions is called eliciting. In this sequence, the teacher is eliciting vocabulary: (7 letters)
Teacher: What does Phill Collins do?
St2: …plays drums I think.
Teacher: He’s a singer and he….?
St3: Plays drums.
Teacher: He’s a singer and he plays the drums so he’s a….?
St4: Drummer, he’s a drummer.
3 – [SLA] _______ is the term used to describe the grammatical system that a learner creates in the course of learning another language. It is neither their first language system, nor the target language system, but occupies a transitional point between the two. It is seen as an independent system in its own right, and not simply a degenerate form of the target language. It reflects the learner’s evolving system of rules. Some of these rules may be influenced by the first language (through transfer), others by the target language, while others are attributed to innate and universal principle. (13 letters)
4 – [SLA] _______ is what learners report to have learnt from a language lesson. Typically, what learners say they have learnt does not necessarily match what the teacher intended to teach. Moreover, ______ can vary from learner to learner. Factors that appear to enhance it are salience, ie, how much emphasis was given to an item or topic, and source, ie, whether the item or topic originated in the teacher or in another learner. Research suggests that, although the majority of the topics that occur in the lessons are raised by the teacher, the topics that learners remember best (ie, their ______) are those raised by other learners. (6 letters)
5 – [PSYCHOLOGY] _______ is the way that knowledge about a topic or a concept is represented and organized in the mind. It helps us make sense of experience, and hence they are crucial in comprehension. For example, the sentence At check-in they told me my flight had boarded will not make much sense to anyone who does not have an ‘air travel_______‘. The air-travel_______ not only includes the various places in an airport, but links these into a typical sequence (or script). Familiarity with the script allows us to fill in the details in a narrative, and to make predictions as to what might happen next. For example: … so I was put on the waiting list for the next one. A_______ constitutes part of what is called the top-down knowledge of a text. If students do not have the _______, or if the_______ is represented differently in their own culture, or if they simply fail to access it, they will have to rely on bottom-up processing alone, ie, working out the meaning from the vocabulary and grammar. Thus, teachers can help learners understand a text by priming them to activate the appropriate _______. One way of doing this is to use contextual information, such as titles, headlines, pictures, as clues as to what the text is about. Another is to ask them to brainstorm what they already know about a topic. (6 letters)
6 – [SLA] _______ is used metaphorically to describe the temporary interactional support that is given to learners while their language system is ‘under construction’. It is this support – from teachers, parents, or ‘better others’ – that enables them to perform a task at a level beyond their present competence. The term derives from sociocultural learning theory, which views learning as being jointly constructed. _______ is an integral part of this model. In first language acquisition it has been observed that children, even at an early age, are able to participate in conversations because of the verbal _______ provided by their caregivers. (11 letters)
7 – [VOCABULARY] _______ is a word that is written and pronounced the same way, but have different meanings. (7 letters)
8 – [METHODOLOGY]_______ is the process of helping learning to happen. It is a way of thinking about teaching that recognizes the fact that teachers do not directly cause learning, but that they can provide the conditions in which learning happens. This notion comes partly from humanist educational theory and partly from critical pedagogy, both of which credit the learner with agency in the learning process. That is, the learner should not be seen as the object of the verb to teach, but the subject of the verb to learn. It is achieved by managing the learning situation, including the dynamics, in a way that is conducive to learning. The role of the teacher involves, therefore, not just knowledge of teaching techniques and subject matter knowledge (such as grammar), but interpersonal skills as well. A good example is in community language learning, where the teacher’s role is primarily that of a consultant, providing learners with the language they need to construct their own conversations. (12 letters)
9 – [METHODOLOGY]_______ ELT is the name of a loose collective of teachers who challenge what they consider to be an over-reliance on materials, including published coursebooks, in current language teaching. It was inspired by a movement in which a group of Danish film makers who have vowed to rid cinema of a dependence on technology, and to produce films using minimal means but for maximal effect. Accordingly, _______ ELT argues for ‘a pedagogy of bare essentials’, that is, a pedagogy unburdened by an excess of materials and technology, a pedagogy grounded in the local and relevant concerns of the people in the room. (5 letters)
10 –[LINGUISTICS] A _______ is a collection of actually occurring texts (either spoken or written), stored and accessed by means of computers, and useful for investigating language use. The use of _______ (plural) for researching language structure and use has led to the development of grammars and dictionaries that claim to be more reliable than their forbears, in that they are based on attested (ie, real) data. Dictionaries, for example, can now present the different meanings of a word according to their relative frequency, and can include the most commonly occurring collocations of a word, as well as using authentic examples, rather than invented ones. One way that _______ information is often presented is in the form of a concordance (a list of words, along with each word’s immediate context). (6 letters)
11 – [METHODOLOGY] A _______ is a classroom activity whose focus is on communicating meaning. The objective of a _______ may be to reach some consensus on a issue, to solve a problem, to draft a plan, to design something, or to persuade someone to do something. In the performance of the _______, learners are expected to make use of their own language resources. In theory, a _______ may be receptive or productive, and may be done individually or in pairs or small groups. However, in practice, most activities that are labelled as such in coursebooks involve production (either speaking or writing, or both) and require learners to interact with one another.
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Source: An A ‑ Z of ELT: A Dictionary of Terms and Concepts Used in English Language – Scott Thornburry